Annotation issues at runtime

Idiomatic use of type annotations can sometimes run up against what a given version of Python considers legal code. This section describes these scenarios and explains how to get your code running again. Generally speaking, we have three tools at our disposal:

  • Use of from __future__ import annotations (PEP 563) (this behaviour may eventually be made the default in a future Python version)

  • Use of string literal types or type comments

  • Use of typing.TYPE_CHECKING

We provide a description of these before moving onto discussion of specific problems you may encounter.

String literal types and type comments

Mypy allows you to add type annotations using # type: type comments. For example:

a = 1  # type: int

def f(x):  # type: (int) -> int
    return x + 1

# Alternative type comment syntax for functions with many arguments
def send_email(
     address,     # type: Union[str, List[str]]
     sender,      # type: str
     cc,          # type: Optional[List[str]]
     body=None    # type: List[str]
    # type: (...) -> bool

Type comments can’t cause runtime errors because comments are not evaluated by Python.

In a similar way, using string literal types sidesteps the problem of annotations that would cause runtime errors.

Any type can be entered as a string literal, and you can combine string-literal types with non-string-literal types freely:

def f(a: list['A']) -> None: ...  # OK, prevents NameError since A is defined later
def g(n: 'int') -> None: ...      # Also OK, though not useful

class A: pass

String literal types are never needed in # type: comments and stub files.

String literal types must be defined (or imported) later in the same module. They cannot be used to leave cross-module references unresolved. (For dealing with import cycles, see Import cycles.)

Future annotations import (PEP 563)

Many of the issues described here are caused by Python trying to evaluate annotations. Future Python versions (potentially Python 3.12) will by default no longer attempt to evaluate function and variable annotations. This behaviour is made available in Python 3.7 and later through the use of from __future__ import annotations.

This can be thought of as automatic string literal-ification of all function and variable annotations. Note that function and variable annotations are still required to be valid Python syntax. For more details, see PEP 563.


Even with the __future__ import, there are some scenarios that could still require string literals or result in errors, typically involving use of forward references or generics in:

# base class example
from __future__ import annotations
class A(tuple['B', 'C']): ... # String literal types needed here
class B: ...
class C: ...


Some libraries may have use cases for dynamic evaluation of annotations, for instance, through use of typing.get_type_hints or eval. If your annotation would raise an error when evaluated (say by using PEP 604 syntax with Python 3.9), you may need to be careful when using such libraries.


The typing module defines a TYPE_CHECKING constant that is False at runtime but treated as True while type checking.

Since code inside if TYPE_CHECKING: is not executed at runtime, it provides a convenient way to tell mypy something without the code being evaluated at runtime. This is most useful for resolving import cycles.

Class name forward references

Python does not allow references to a class object before the class is defined (aka forward reference). Thus this code does not work as expected:

def f(x: A) -> None: ...  # NameError: name "A" is not defined
class A: ...

Starting from Python 3.7, you can add from __future__ import annotations to resolve this, as discussed earlier:

from __future__ import annotations

def f(x: A) -> None: ...  # OK
class A: ...

For Python 3.6 and below, you can enter the type as a string literal or type comment:

def f(x: 'A') -> None: ...  # OK

# Also OK
def g(x):  # type: (A) -> None

class A: ...

Of course, instead of using future annotations import or string literal types, you could move the function definition after the class definition. This is not always desirable or even possible, though.

Import cycles

An import cycle occurs where module A imports module B and module B imports module A (perhaps indirectly, e.g. A -> B -> C -> A). Sometimes in order to add type annotations you have to add extra imports to a module and those imports cause cycles that didn’t exist before. This can lead to errors at runtime like:

ImportError: cannot import name 'b' from partially initialized module 'A' (most likely due to a circular import)

If those cycles do become a problem when running your program, there’s a trick: if the import is only needed for type annotations and you’re using a) the future annotations import, or b) string literals or type comments for the relevant annotations, you can write the imports inside if TYPE_CHECKING: so that they are not executed at runtime. Example:


from typing import TYPE_CHECKING

    import bar

def listify(arg: 'bar.BarClass') -> 'list[bar.BarClass]':
    return [arg]


from foo import listify

class BarClass:
    def listifyme(self) -> 'list[BarClass]':
        return listify(self)

Using classes that are generic in stubs but not at runtime

Some classes are declared as generic in stubs, but not at runtime.

In Python 3.8 and earlier, there are several examples within the standard library, for instance, os.PathLike and queue.Queue. Subscripting such a class will result in a runtime error:

from queue import Queue

class Tasks(Queue[str]):  # TypeError: 'type' object is not subscriptable

results: Queue[int] = Queue()  # TypeError: 'type' object is not subscriptable

To avoid errors from use of these generics in annotations, just use the future annotations import (or string literals or type comments for Python 3.6 and below).

To avoid errors when inheriting from these classes, things are a little more complicated and you need to use typing.TYPE_CHECKING:

from typing import TYPE_CHECKING
from queue import Queue

    BaseQueue = Queue[str]  # this is only processed by mypy
    BaseQueue = Queue  # this is not seen by mypy but will be executed at runtime

class Tasks(BaseQueue):  # OK

task_queue: Tasks
reveal_type(task_queue.get())  # Reveals str

If your subclass is also generic, you can use the following:

from typing import TYPE_CHECKING, TypeVar, Generic
from queue import Queue

_T = TypeVar("_T")
    class _MyQueueBase(Queue[_T]): pass
    class _MyQueueBase(Generic[_T], Queue): pass

class MyQueue(_MyQueueBase[_T]): pass

task_queue: MyQueue[str]
reveal_type(task_queue.get())  # Reveals str

In Python 3.9, we can just inherit directly from Queue[str] or Queue[T] since its queue.Queue implements __class_getitem__(), so the class object can be subscripted at runtime without issue.

Using types defined in stubs but not at runtime

Sometimes stubs that you’re using may define types you wish to re-use that do not exist at runtime. Importing these types naively will cause your code to fail at runtime with ImportError or ModuleNotFoundError. Similar to previous sections, these can be dealt with by using typing.TYPE_CHECKING:

from __future__ import annotations
from typing import TYPE_CHECKING
    from _typeshed import SupportsRichComparison

 def f(x: SupportsRichComparison) -> None

The from __future__ import annotations is required to avoid a NameError when using the imported symbol. For more information and caveats, see the section on future annotations.

Using generic builtins

Starting with Python 3.9 (PEP 585), the type objects of many collections in the standard library support subscription at runtime. This means that you no longer have to import the equivalents from typing; you can simply use the built-in collections or those from

from import Sequence
x: list[str]
y: dict[int, str]
z: Sequence[str] = x

There is limited support for using this syntax in Python 3.7 and later as well: if you use from __future__ import annotations, mypy will understand this syntax in annotations. However, since this will not be supported by the Python interpreter at runtime, make sure you’re aware of the caveats mentioned in the notes at future annotations import.

Using X | Y syntax for Unions

Starting with Python 3.10 (PEP 604), you can spell union types as x: int | str, instead of x: typing.Union[int, str].

There is limited support for using this syntax in Python 3.7 and later as well: if you use from __future__ import annotations, mypy will understand this syntax in annotations, string literal types, type comments and stub files. However, since this will not be supported by the Python interpreter at runtime (if evaluated, int | str will raise TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for |: 'type' and 'type'), make sure you’re aware of the caveats mentioned in the notes at future annotations import.

Using new additions to the typing module

You may find yourself wanting to use features added to the typing module in earlier versions of Python than the addition, for example, using any of Literal, Protocol, TypedDict with Python 3.6.

The easiest way to do this is to install and use the typing_extensions package from PyPI for the relevant imports, for example:

from typing_extensions import Literal
x: Literal["open", "close"]

If you don’t want to rely on typing_extensions being installed on newer Pythons, you could alternatively use:

import sys
if sys.version_info >= (3, 8):
    from typing import Literal
    from typing_extensions import Literal

x: Literal["open", "close"]

This plays nicely well with following PEP 508 dependency specification: typing_extensions; python_version<"3.8"