The mypy command line¶
This section documents mypy’s command line interface. You can view
a quick summary of the available flags by running
Command line flags are liable to change between releases.
Specifying what to type check¶
By default, you can specify what code you want mypy to type check by passing in the paths to what you want to have type checked:
$ mypy foo.py bar.py some_directory
Note that directories are checked recursively.
Mypy also lets you specify what code to type check in several other ways. A short summary of the relevant flags is included below: for full details, see Running mypy and managing imports.
Asks mypy to type check the provided module. This flag may be repeated multiple times.
Mypy will not recursively type check any submodules of the provided module.
Asks mypy to type check the provided package. This flag may be repeated multiple times.
Mypy will recursively type check any submodules of the provided package. This flag is identical to
--moduleapart from this behavior.
Asks mypy to type check the provided string as a program.
A regular expression that matches file names, directory names and paths which mypy should ignore while recursively discovering files to check. Use forward slashes on all platforms.
For instance, to avoid discovering any files named setup.py you could pass
--exclude '/setup\.py$'. Similarly, you can ignore discovering directories with a given name by e.g.
--exclude /build/or those matching a subpath with
--exclude /project/vendor/. To ignore multiple files / directories / paths, you can provide the –exclude flag more than once, e.g
--exclude '/setup\.py$' --exclude '/build/'.
Note that this flag only affects recursive directory tree discovery, that is, when mypy is discovering files within a directory tree or submodules of a package to check. If you pass a file or module explicitly it will still be checked. For instance,
mypy --exclude '/setup.py$' but_still_check/setup.py.
--excludedoes not affect mypy’s import following. You can use a per-module
follow_importsconfig option to additionally avoid mypy from following imports and checking code you do not wish to be checked.
Note that mypy will never recursively discover files and directories named “site-packages”, “node_modules” or “__pycache__”, or those whose name starts with a period, exactly as
--exclude '/(site-packages|node_modules|__pycache__|\..*)/$'would. Mypy will also never recursively discover files with extensions other than
Show help message and exit.
More verbose messages.
Show program’s version number and exit.
This flag makes mypy read configuration settings from the given file.
By default settings are read from
setup.cfgin the current directory. Settings override mypy’s built-in defaults and command line flags can override settings.
--config-file=(with no filename) will ignore all config files.
See The mypy configuration file for the syntax of configuration files.
The following flags customize how exactly mypy discovers and follows imports.
This flag enables import discovery to use namespace packages (see PEP 420). In particular, this allows discovery of imported packages that don’t have an
Namespace packages are found (using the PEP 420 rules, which prefers “classic” packages over namespace packages) along the module search path – this is primarily set from the source files passed on the command line, the
MYPYPATHenvironment variable, and the
This flag affects how mypy finds modules and packages explicitly passed on the command line. It also affects how mypy determines fully qualified module names for files passed on the command line. See Mapping file paths to modules for details.
This flag tells mypy that top-level packages will be based in either the current directory, or a member of the
MYPYPATHenvironment variable or
mypy_pathconfig option. This option is only useful in conjunction with
--namespace-packages. See Mapping file paths to modules for details.
This flag makes mypy ignore all missing imports. It is equivalent to adding
# type: ignorecomments to all unresolved imports within your codebase.
Note that this flag does not suppress errors about missing names in successfully resolved modules. For example, if one has the following files:
Then mypy will generate the following errors with
import package.unknown # No error, ignored x = package.unknown.func() # OK. 'func' is assumed to be of type 'Any' from package import unknown # No error, ignored from package.mod import NonExisting # Error: Module has no attribute 'NonExisting'
For more details, see Missing imports.
This flag adjusts how mypy follows imported modules that were not explicitly passed in via the command line.
The default option is
normal: mypy will follow and type check all modules. For more information on what the other options do, see Following imports.
This flag will have mypy collect type information from PEP 561 compliant packages installed for the Python executable
EXECUTABLE. If not provided, mypy will use PEP 561 compliant packages installed for the Python executable running mypy.
See Using installed packages for more on making PEP 561 compliant packages.
This flag will disable searching for PEP 561 compliant packages. This will also disable searching for a usable Python executable.
Use this flag if mypy cannot find a Python executable for the version of Python being checked, and you don’t need to use PEP 561 typed packages. Otherwise, use
By default, mypy will assume that you intend to run your code using the same operating system and Python version you are using to run mypy itself. The following flags let you modify this behavior.
For more information on how to use these flags, see Python version and system platform checks.
This flag will make mypy type check your code as if it were run under Python version X.Y. Without this option, mypy will default to using whatever version of Python is running mypy. Note that the
--py2flags are aliases for
This flag will attempt to find a Python executable of the corresponding version to search for PEP 561 compliant packages. If you’d like to disable this, use the
--no-site-packagesflag (see Import discovery for more details).
Equivalent to running
To check Python 2 code with mypy, you’ll need to install mypy with
pip install 'mypy[python2]'.
This flag will make mypy type check your code as if it were run under the given operating system. Without this option, mypy will default to using whatever operating system you are currently using.
PLATFORMparameter may be any string supported by
This flag will treat all variables named
NAMEas compile-time constants that are always true. This flag may be repeated.
This flag will treat all variables named
NAMEas compile-time constants that are always false. This flag may be repeated.
Disallow dynamic typing¶
Any type is used represent a value that has a dynamic type.
--disallow-any family of flags will disallow various uses of the
Any type in
a module – this lets us strategically disallow the use of dynamic typing in a controlled way.
The following options are available:
This flag disallows usage of types that come from unfollowed imports (such types become aliases for
Any). Unfollowed imports occur either when the imported module does not exist or when
This flag disallows all expressions in the module that have type
Any. If an expression of type
Anyappears anywhere in the module mypy will output an error unless the expression is immediately used as an argument to
cast()or assigned to a variable with an explicit type annotation.
In addition, declaring a variable of type
Anyor casting to type
Anyis not allowed. Note that calling functions that take parameters of type
Anyis still allowed.
This flag disallows functions that have
Anyin their signature after decorator transformation.
This flag disallows explicit
Anyin type positions such as type annotations and generic type parameters.
This flag disallows usage of generic types that do not specify explicit type parameters. Moreover, built-in collections (such as
dict) become disallowed as you should use their aliases from the
typingmodule (such as
This flag reports an error whenever a class subclasses a value of type
Any. This may occur when the base class is imported from a module that doesn’t exist (when using
--ignore-missing-imports) or is ignored due to
# type: ignorecomment on the
Since the module is silenced, the imported class is given a type of
Any. By default mypy will assume that the subclass correctly inherited the base class even though that may not actually be the case. This flag makes mypy raise an error instead.
Untyped definitions and calls¶
The following flags configure how mypy handles untyped function definitions or calls.
This flag reports an error whenever a function with type annotations calls a function defined without annotations.
This flag reports an error whenever it encounters a function definition without type annotations.
This flag reports an error whenever it encounters a partly annotated function definition.
This flag is less severe than the previous two options – it type checks the body of every function, regardless of whether it has type annotations. (By default the bodies of functions without annotations are not type checked.)
It will assume all arguments have type
Anyand always infer
Anyas the return type.
This flag reports an error whenever a function with type annotations is decorated with a decorator without annotations.
None and Optional handling¶
The following flags adjust how mypy handles values of type
For more details, see Disabling strict optional checking.
This flag causes mypy to stop treating arguments with a
Nonedefault value as having an implicit
For example, by default mypy will assume that the
xparameter is of type
Optional[int]in the code snippet below since the default parameter is
def foo(x: int = None) -> None: print(x)
If this flag is set, the above snippet will no longer type check: we must now explicitly indicate that the type is
def foo(x: Optional[int] = None) -> None: print(x)
This flag disables strict checking of
Nonevalues. With this option, mypy doesn’t generally check the use of
Nonevalues – they are valid everywhere. See Disabling strict optional checking for more about this feature.
Note: Strict optional checking was enabled by default starting in mypy 0.600, and in previous versions it had to be explicitly enabled using
--strict-optional(which is still accepted).
The follow flags enable warnings for code that is sound but is potentially problematic or redundant in some way.
This flag will make mypy report an error whenever your code uses an unnecessary cast that can safely be removed.
This flag will make mypy report an error whenever your code uses a
# type: ignorecomment on a line that is not actually generating an error message.
This flag, along with the
--warn-redundant-castsflag, are both particularly useful when you are upgrading mypy. Previously, you may have needed to add casts or
# type: ignoreannotations to work around bugs in mypy or missing stubs for 3rd party libraries.
These two flags let you discover cases where either workarounds are no longer necessary.
By default, mypy will generate errors when a function is missing return statements in some execution paths. The only exceptions are when:
- The function has a
- The function has an empty body or a body that is just
...). Empty functions are often used for abstract methods.
--no-warn-no-returnwill disable these error messages in all cases.
- The function has a
This flag causes mypy to generate a warning when returning a value with type
Anyfrom a function declared with a non-
This flag will make mypy report an error whenever it encounters code determined to be unreachable or redundant after performing type analysis. This can be a helpful way of detecting certain kinds of bugs in your code.
For example, enabling this flag will make mypy report that the
x > 7check is redundant and that the
elseblock below is unreachable.
def process(x: int) -> None: # Error: Right operand of "or" is never evaluated if isinstance(x, int) or x > 7: # Error: Unsupported operand types for + ("int" and "str") print(x + "bad") else: # Error: 'Statement is unreachable' error print(x + "bad")
To help prevent mypy from generating spurious warnings, the “Statement is unreachable” warning will be silenced in exactly two cases:
- When the unreachable statement is a
raisestatement, is an
assert Falsestatement, or calls a function that has the
NoReturnreturn type hint. In other words, when the unreachable statement throws an error or terminates the program in some way.
- When the unreachable statement was intentionally marked as unreachable using Python version and system platform checks.
Mypy currently cannot detect and report unreachable or redundant code inside any functions using Type variables with value restriction.
This limitation will be removed in future releases of mypy.
- When the unreachable statement is a
Miscellaneous strictness flags¶
This section documents any other flags that do not neatly fall under any of the above sections.
This flag causes mypy to suppress errors caused by not being able to fully infer the types of global and class variables.
By default, mypy won’t allow a variable to be redefined with an unrelated type. This flag enables redefinition of a variable with an arbitrary type in some contexts: only redefinitions within the same block and nesting depth as the original definition are allowed. Example where this can be useful:
def process(items: List[str]) -> None: # 'items' has type List[str] items = [item.split() for item in items] # 'items' now has type List[List[str]] ...
In mypy, the most common cases for partial types are variables initialized using
None, but without explicit
Optionalannotations. By default, mypy won’t check partial types spanning module top level or class top level. This flag changes the behavior to only allow partial types at local level, therefore it disallows inferring variable type for
Nonefrom two assignments in different scopes. For example:
from typing import Optional a = None # Need type annotation here if using --local-partial-types b = None # type: Optional[int] class Foo: bar = None # Need type annotation here if using --local-partial-types baz = None # type: Optional[int] def __init__(self) -> None: self.bar = 1 reveal_type(Foo().bar) # Union[int, None] without --local-partial-types
Note: this option is always implicitly enabled in mypy daemon and will become enabled by default for mypy in a future release.
By default, imported values to a module are treated as exported and mypy allows other modules to import them. This flag changes the behavior to not re-export unless the item is imported using from-as or is included in
__all__. Note this is always treated as enabled for stub files. For example:
# This won't re-export the value from foo import bar # Neither will this from foo import bar as bang # This will re-export it as bar and allow other modules to import it from foo import bar as bar # This will also re-export bar from foo import bar __all__ = ['bar']
By default, mypy allows always-false comparisons like
42 == 'no'. Use this flag to prohibit such comparisons of non-overlapping types, and similar identity and container checks:
from typing import List, Text items: List[int] if 'some string' in items: # Error: non-overlapping container check! ... text: Text if text != b'other bytes': # Error: non-overlapping equality check! ... assert text is not None # OK, check against None is allowed as a special case.
This flag mode enables all optional error checking flags. You can see the list of flags enabled by strict mode in the full
Note: the exact list of flags enabled by running
--strictmay change over time.
This flag allows disabling one or multiple error codes globally.
# no flag x = 'a string' x.trim() # error: "str" has no attribute "trim" [attr-defined] # --disable-error-code attr-defined x = 'a string' x.trim()
This flag allows enabling one or multiple error codes globally.
Note: This flag will override disabled error codes from the –disable-error-code flag
# --disable-error-code attr-defined x = 'a string' x.trim() # --disable-error-code attr-defined --enable-error-code attr-defined x = 'a string' x.trim() # error: "str" has no attribute "trim" [attr-defined]
Configuring error messages¶
The following flags let you adjust how much detail mypy displays in error messages.
This flag will precede all errors with “note” messages explaining the context of the error. For example, consider the following program:
class Test: def foo(self, x: int) -> int: return x + "bar"
Mypy normally displays an error message that looks like this:
main.py:3: error: Unsupported operand types for + ("int" and "str")
If we enable this flag, the error message now looks like this:
main.py: note: In member "foo" of class "Test": main.py:3: error: Unsupported operand types for + ("int" and "str")
This flag will add column offsets to error messages. For example, the following indicates an error in line 12, column 9 (note that column offsets are 0-based):
main.py:12:9: error: Unsupported operand types for / ("int" and "str")
This flag will add an error code
[<code>]to error messages. The error code is shown after each error message:
prog.py:1: error: "str" has no attribute "trim" [attr-defined]
See Error codes for more information.
Use visually nicer output in error messages: use soft word wrap, show source code snippets, and show error location markers.
This flag will disable color output in error messages, enabled by default.
This flag will disable error summary. By default mypy shows a summary line including total number of errors, number of files with errors, and number of files checked.
Show absolute paths to files.
This flag will adjust the limit after which mypy will (sometimes) disable reporting most additional errors. The limit only applies if it seems likely that most of the remaining errors will not be useful or they may be overly noisy. If
Nis negative, there is no limit. The default limit is 200.
By default, mypy will store type information into a cache. Mypy will use this information to avoid unnecessary recomputation when it type checks your code again. This can help speed up the type checking process, especially when most parts of your program have not changed since the previous mypy run.
If you want to speed up how long it takes to recheck your code beyond what incremental mode can offer, try running mypy in daemon mode.
This flag disables incremental mode: mypy will no longer reference the cache when re-run.
Note that mypy will still write out to the cache even when incremental mode is disabled: see the
--cache-dirflag below for more details.
By default, mypy stores all cache data inside of a folder named
.mypy_cachein the current directory. This flag lets you change this folder. This flag can also be useful for controlling cache use when using remote caching.
This setting will override the
MYPY_CACHE_DIRenvironment variable if it is set.
Mypy will also always write to the cache even when incremental mode is disabled so it can “warm up” the cache. To disable writing to the cache, use
Include fine-grained dependency information in the cache for the mypy daemon.
By default, mypy will ignore cache data generated by a different version of mypy. This flag disables that behavior.
Skip cache internal consistency checks based on mtime.
The following flags are useful mostly for people who are interested in developing or debugging mypy internals.
This flag will invoke the Python debugger when mypy encounters a fatal error.
If set, this flag will display a full traceback when mypy encounters a fatal error.
Raise exception on fatal error.
This flag lets you use a custom module as a substitute for the
This flag specifies the directory where mypy looks for standard library typeshed stubs, instead of the typeshed that ships with mypy. This is primarily intended to make it easier to test typeshed changes before submitting them upstream, but also allows you to use a forked version of typeshed.
Note that this doesn’t affect third-party library stubs.
This flag modifies both the
--disallow-incomplete-defsflags so they also report errors if stubs in typeshed are missing type annotations or has incomplete annotations. If both flags are missing,
--warn-incomplete-stubalso does nothing.
This flag is mainly intended to be used by people who want contribute to typeshed and would like a convenient way to find gaps and omissions.
If you want mypy to report an error when your codebase uses an untyped function, whether that function is defined in typeshed or not, use the
--disallow-untyped-callsflag. See Untyped definitions and calls for more details.
When mypy is asked to type check
SOURCE_FILE, this flag makes mypy read from and type check the contents of
SHADOW_FILEinstead. However, diagnostics will continue to refer to
Specifying this argument multiple times (
--shadow-file X1 Y1 --shadow-file X2 Y2) will allow mypy to perform multiple substitutions.
This allows tooling to create temporary files with helpful modifications without having to change the source file in place. For example, suppose we have a pipeline that adds
reveal_typefor certain variables. This pipeline is run on
mypy --shadow-file original.py temp.py original.pywill then cause mypy to type check the contents of
original.py, but error messages will still reference
If these flags are set, mypy will generate a report in the specified format into the specified directory.
Causes mypy to generate a text file report documenting how many expressions of type
Anyare present within your codebase.
Causes mypy to generate a Cobertura XML type checking coverage report.
You must install the lxml library to generate this report.
/ --xslt-html-report DIR¶
Causes mypy to generate an HTML type checking coverage report.
You must install the lxml library to generate this report.
Causes mypy to generate a text file report documenting the functions and lines that are typed and untyped within your codebase.
Causes mypy to generate a JSON file that maps each source file’s absolute filename to a list of line numbers that belong to typed functions in that file.
Causes mypy to generate a flat text file report with per-module statistics of how many lines are typechecked etc.
/ --xslt-txt-report DIR¶
Causes mypy to generate a text file type checking coverage report.
You must install the lxml library to generate this report.
This flag causes mypy to install known missing stub packages for third-party libraries using pip. It will display the pip command that will be run, and expects a confirmation before installing anything. For security reasons, these stubs are limited to only a small subset of manually selected packages that have been verified by the typeshed team. These packages include only stub files and no executable code.
If you use this option without providing any files or modules to type check, mypy will install stub packages suggested during the previous mypy run. If there are files or modules to type check, mypy first type checks those, and proposes to install missing stubs at the end of the run, but only if any missing modules were detected.
This is new in mypy 0.900. Previous mypy versions included a selection of third-party package stubs, instead of having them installed separately.
When used together with
--install-types, this causes mypy to install all suggested stub packages using pip without asking for confirmation, and then continues to perform type checking using the installed stubs, if some files or modules are provided to type check.
This is implemented as up to two mypy runs internally. The first run is used to find missing stub packages, and output is shown from this run only if no missing stub packages were found. If missing stub packages were found, they are installed and then another run is performed.
Causes mypy to generate a JUnit XML test result document with type checking results. This can make it easier to integrate mypy with continuous integration (CI) tools.
This flag will make mypy print out all usages of a class member based on static type information. This feature is experimental.
This flag will give command line arguments that appear to be scripts (i.e. files whose name does not end in
.py) a module name derived from the script name rather than the fixed name
This lets you check more than one script in a single mypy invocation. (The default
__main__is technically more correct, but if you have many scripts that import a large package, the behavior enabled by this flag is often more convenient.)