Common issues and solutions¶
This section has examples of cases when you need to update your code to use static typing, and ideas for working around issues if mypy doesn’t work as expected. Statically typed code is often identical to normal Python code (except for type annotations), but sometimes you need to do things slightly differently.
Can’t install mypy using pip¶
If installation fails, you’ve probably hit one of these issues:
- Mypy needs Python 3.5 or later to run.
- You may have to run pip like this:
python3 -m pip install mypy.
No errors reported for obviously wrong code¶
There are several common reasons why obviously wrong code is not flagged as an error.
The function containing the error is not annotated. Functions that do not have any annotations (neither for any argument nor for the return type) are not type-checked, and even the most blatant type errors (e.g.
2 + 'a') pass silently. The solution is to add annotations. Where that isn’t possible, functions without annotations can be checked using
def foo(a): return '(' + a.split() + ')' # No error!
This gives no error even though
a.split()is “obviously” a list (the author probably meant
a.strip()). The error is reported once you add annotations:
def foo(a: str) -> str: return '(' + a.split() + ')' # error: Unsupported operand types for + ("str" and List[str])
If you don’t know what types to add, you can use
Any, but beware:
One of the values involved has type ‘Any’. Extending the above example, if we were to leave out the annotation for
a, we’d get no error:
def foo(a) -> str: return '(' + a.split() + ')' # No error!
The reason is that if the type of
ais unknown, the type of
a.split()is also unknown, so it is inferred as having type
Any, and it is no error to add a string to an
If you’re having trouble debugging such situations, reveal_type() might come in handy.
__init__method has no annotated arguments or return type annotation.
__init__is considered fully-annotated if at least one argument is annotated, while mypy will infer the return type as
None. The implication is that, for a
__init__method that has no argument, you’ll have to explicitly annotate the return type as
Noneto type-check this
def foo(s: str) -> str: return s class A(): def __init__(self, value: str): # Return type inferred as None, considered as typed method self.value = value foo(1) # error: Argument 1 to "foo" has incompatible type "int"; expected "str" class B(): def __init__(self): # No argument is annotated, considered as untyped method foo(1) # No error! class C(): def __init__(self) -> None: # Must specify return type to type-check foo(1) # error: Argument 1 to "foo" has incompatible type "int"; expected "str"
Some imports may be silently ignored. Another source of unexpected
Anyvalues are the
--follow-imports=skipflags. When you use
--ignore-missing-imports, any imported module that cannot be found is silently replaced with
Any. When using
--follow-imports=skipthe same is true for modules for which a
.pyfile is found but that are not specified on the command line. (If a
.pyistub is found it is always processed normally, regardless of the value of
--follow-imports.) To help debug the former situation (no module found at all) leave out
--ignore-missing-imports; to get clarity about the latter use
--follow-imports=error. You can read up about these and other useful flags in The mypy command line.
A function annotated as returning a non-optional type returns ‘None’ and mypy doesn’t complain.
def foo() -> str: return None # No error!
You may have disabled strict optional checking (see Disabling strict optional checking for more).
Spurious errors and locally silencing the checker¶
You can use a
# type: ignore comment to silence the type checker
on a particular line. For example, let’s say our code is using
the C extension module
frobnicate, and there’s no stub available.
Mypy will complain about this, as it has no information about the
import frobnicate # Error: No module "frobnicate" frobnicate.start()
You can add a
# type: ignore comment to tell mypy to ignore this
import frobnicate # type: ignore frobnicate.start() # Okay!
The second line is now fine, since the ignore comment causes the name
frobnicate to get an implicit
You can use the form
# type: ignore[<code>] to only ignore
specific errors on the line. This way you are less likely to
silence unexpected errors that are not safe to ignore, and this
will also document what the purpose of the comment is. See
Error codes for more information.
# type: ignore comment will only assign the implicit
type if mypy cannot find information about that particular module. So,
if we did have a stub available for
frobnicate then mypy would
# type: ignore comment and typecheck the stub as usual.
Another option is to explicitly annotate values with type
mypy will let you perform arbitrary operations on
values. Sometimes there is no more precise type you can use for a
particular value, especially if you use dynamic Python features
class Wrapper: ... def __getattr__(self, a: str) -> Any: return getattr(self._wrapped, a)
Finally, you can create a stub file (
.pyi) for a file that
generates spurious errors. Mypy will only look at the stub file
and ignore the implementation, since stub files take precedence
Ignoring a whole file¶
# type: ignore comment at the top of a module (before any statements,
including imports or docstrings) has the effect of ignoring the entire module.
# type: ignore import foo foo.bar()
Unexpected errors about ‘None’ and/or ‘Optional’ types¶
Starting from mypy 0.600, mypy uses
strict optional checking by default,
None value is not compatible with non-optional types.
It’s easy to switch back to the older behavior where
compatible with arbitrary types (see Disabling strict optional checking).
You can also fall back to this behavior if strict optional
checking would require a large number of
assert foo is not None
checks to be inserted, and you want to minimize the number
of code changes required to get a clean mypy run.
Mypy runs are slow¶
If your mypy runs feel slow, you should probably use the mypy daemon, which can speed up incremental mypy runtimes by a factor of 10 or more. Remote caching can make cold mypy runs several times faster.
Types of empty collections¶
You often need to specify the type when you assign an empty list or dict to a new variable, as mentioned earlier:
a: List[int] = 
Without the annotation mypy can’t always figure out the
precise type of
You can use a simple empty list literal in a dynamically typed function (as the
a would be implicitly
Any and need not be inferred), if type
of the variable has been declared or inferred before, or if you perform a simple
modification operation in the same scope (such as
append for a list):
a =  # Okay because followed by append, inferred type List[int] for i in range(n): a.append(i * i)
However, in more complex cases an explicit type annotation can be required (mypy will tell you this). Often the annotation can make your code easier to understand, so it doesn’t only help mypy but everybody who is reading the code!
Redefinitions with incompatible types¶
Each name within a function only has a single ‘declared’ type. You can
reuse for loop indices etc., but if you want to use a variable with
multiple types within a single function, you may need to declare it
def f() -> None: n = 1 ... n = 'x' # Type error: n has type int
This limitation could be lifted in a future mypy release.
Note that you can redefine a variable with a more precise or a more
concrete type. For example, you can redefine a sequence (which does
sort()) as a list and sort it in-place:
def f(x: Sequence[int]) -> None: # Type of x is Sequence[int] here; we don't know the concrete type. x = list(x) # Type of x is List[int] here. x.sort() # Okay!
Invariance vs covariance¶
Most mutable generic collections are invariant, and mypy considers all user-defined generic classes invariant by default (see Variance of generic types for motivation). This could lead to some unexpected errors when combined with type inference. For example:
class A: ... class B(A): ... lst = [A(), A()] # Inferred type is List[A] new_lst = [B(), B()] # inferred type is List[B] lst = new_lst # mypy will complain about this, because List is invariant
Possible strategies in such situations are:
Use an explicit type annotation:
new_lst: List[A] = [B(), B()] lst = new_lst # OK
Make a copy of the right hand side:
lst = list(new_lst) # Also OK
Use immutable collections as annotations whenever possible:
def f_bad(x: List[A]) -> A: return x f_bad(new_lst) # Fails def f_good(x: Sequence[A]) -> A: return x f_good(new_lst) # OK
Declaring a supertype as variable type¶
Sometimes the inferred type is a subtype (subclass) of the desired
type. The type inference uses the first assignment to infer the type
of a name (assume here that
Shape is the base class of both
shape = Circle() # Infer shape to be Circle ... shape = Triangle() # Type error: Triangle is not a Circle
You can just give an explicit type for the variable in cases such the above example:
shape = Circle() # type: Shape # The variable s can be any Shape, # not just Circle ... shape = Triangle() # OK
Complex type tests¶
Mypy can usually infer the types correctly when using
type tests, but for other kinds of checks you may need to add an
explicit type cast:
def f(o: object) -> None: if type(o) is int: o = cast(int, o) g(o + 1) # This would be an error without the cast ... else: ...
Note that the
object type used in the above example is similar
Object in Java: it only supports operations defined for all
objects, such as equality and
isinstance(). The type
in contrast, supports all operations, even if they may fail at
runtime. The cast above would have been unnecessary if the type of
Mypy can’t infer the type of
o after the
because it only knows about
isinstance() (and the latter is better
style anyway). We can write the above code without a cast by using
def f(o: object) -> None: if isinstance(o, int): # Mypy understands isinstance checks g(o + 1) # Okay; type of o is inferred as int here ...
Type inference in mypy is designed to work well in common cases, to be predictable and to let the type checker give useful error messages. More powerful type inference strategies often have complex and difficult-to-predict failure modes and could result in very confusing error messages. The tradeoff is that you as a programmer sometimes have to give the type checker a little help.
Python version and system platform checks¶
Mypy supports the ability to perform Python version checks and platform checks (e.g. Windows vs Posix), ignoring code paths that won’t be run on the targeted Python version or platform. This allows you to more effectively typecheck code that supports multiple versions of Python or multiple operating systems.
import sys # Distinguishing between different versions of Python: if sys.version_info >= (3, 5): # Python 3.5+ specific definitions and imports elif sys.version_info >= 3: # Python 3 specific definitions and imports else: # Python 2 specific definitions and imports # Distinguishing between different operating systems: if sys.platform.startswith("linux"): # Linux-specific code elif sys.platform == "darwin": # Mac-specific code elif sys.platform == "win32": # Windows-specific code else: # Other systems
As a special case, you can also use one of these checks in a top-level
assert; this makes mypy skip the rest of the file.
import sys assert sys.platform != 'win32' # The rest of this file doesn't apply to Windows.
Some other expressions exhibit similar behavior; in particular,
TYPE_CHECKING, variables named
MYPY, and any variable
whose name is passed to
False are not treated specially!)
Mypy currently does not support more complex checks, and does not assign
any special meaning when assigning a
check to a variable. This may change in future versions of mypy.
By default, mypy will use your current version of Python and your current
operating system as default values for
To target a different Python version, use the
--python-version X.Y flag.
For example, to verify your code typechecks if were run using Python 2, pass
--python-version 2.7 from the command line. Note that you do not need
to have Python 2.7 installed to perform this check.
To target a different operating system, use the
--platform PLATFORM flag.
For example, to verify your code typechecks if it were run in Windows, pass
--platform win32. See the documentation for
for examples of valid platform parameters.
Displaying the type of an expression¶
You can use
reveal_type(expr) to ask mypy to display the inferred
static type of an expression. This can be useful when you don’t quite
understand how mypy handles a particular piece of code. Example:
reveal_type((1, 'hello')) # Revealed type is 'Tuple[builtins.int, builtins.str]'
You can also use
reveal_locals() at any line in a file
to see the types of all local variables at once. Example:
a = 1 b = 'one' reveal_locals() # Revealed local types are: # a: builtins.int # b: builtins.str
reveal_locals are only understood by mypy and
don’t exist in Python. If you try to run your program, you’ll have to
reveal_locals calls before you can
run your code. Both are always available and you don’t need to import
An import cycle occurs where module A imports module B and module B
imports module A (perhaps indirectly, e.g.
A -> B -> C -> A).
Sometimes in order to add type annotations you have to add extra
imports to a module and those imports cause cycles that didn’t exist
before. If those cycles become a problem when running your program,
there’s a trick: if the import is only needed for type annotations in
forward references (string literals) or comments, you can write the
if TYPE_CHECKING: so that they are not executed at runtime.
from typing import List, TYPE_CHECKING if TYPE_CHECKING: import bar def listify(arg: 'bar.BarClass') -> 'List[bar.BarClass]': return [arg]
from typing import List from foo import listify class BarClass: def listifyme(self) -> 'List[BarClass]': return listify(self)
Python 3.5.1 doesn’t have
TYPE_CHECKING. An alternative is
to define a constant named
MYPY that has the value
at runtime. Mypy considers it to be
True when type checking.
Here’s the above example modified to use
from typing import List MYPY = False if MYPY: import bar def listify(arg: 'bar.BarClass') -> 'List[bar.BarClass]': return [arg]
Using classes that are generic in stubs but not at runtime¶
from queue import Queue class Tasks(Queue[str]): # TypeError: 'type' object is not subscriptable ... results: Queue[int] = Queue() # TypeError: 'type' object is not subscriptable
To avoid these errors while still having precise types you can either use
string literal types or
from queue import Queue from typing import TYPE_CHECKING if TYPE_CHECKING: BaseQueue = Queue[str] # this is only processed by mypy else: BaseQueue = Queue # this is not seen by mypy but will be executed at runtime. class Tasks(BaseQueue): # OK ... results: 'Queue[int]' = Queue() # OK
If you are running Python 3.7+ you can use
from __future__ import annotations
as a (nicer) alternative to string quotes, read more in PEP 563. For example:
from __future__ import annotations from queue import Queue results: Queue[int] = Queue() # This works at runtime
In some cases, linters will complain about unused imports or code. In these cases, you can silence them with a comment after type comments, or on the same line as the import:
# to silence complaints about unused imports from typing import List # noqa a = None # type: List[int]
To silence the linter on the same line as a type comment put the linter comment after the type comment:
a = some_complex_thing() # type: ignore # noqa
Covariant subtyping of mutable protocol members is rejected¶
Mypy rejects this because this is potentially unsafe. Consider this example:
from typing_extensions import Protocol class P(Protocol): x: float def fun(arg: P) -> None: arg.x = 3.14 class C: x = 42 c = C() fun(c) # This is not safe c.x << 5 # Since this will fail!
To work around this problem consider whether “mutating” is actually part
of a protocol. If not, then one can use a
the protocol definition:
from typing_extensions import Protocol class P(Protocol): @property def x(self) -> float: pass def fun(arg: P) -> None: ... class C: x = 42 fun(C()) # OK
Dealing with conflicting names¶
Suppose you have a class with a method whose name is the same as an imported (or built-in) type, and you want to use the type in another method signature. E.g.:
class Message: def bytes(self): ... def register(self, path: bytes): # error: Invalid type "mod.Message.bytes" ...
The third line elicits an error because mypy sees the argument type
bytes as a reference to the method by that name. Other than
renaming the method, a work-around is to use an alias:
bytes_ = bytes class Message: def bytes(self): ... def register(self, path: bytes_): ...
Using a development mypy build¶
You can install the latest development version of mypy from source. Clone the
mypy repository on GitHub, and then run
pip install locally:
git clone --recurse-submodules https://github.com/python/mypy.git cd mypy sudo python3 -m pip install --upgrade .
Variables vs type aliases¶
Mypy has both type aliases and variables with types like
Type[...] and it is important to know their difference.
- Variables with type
Type[...]should be created by assignments with an explicit type annotations:
class A: ... tp: Type[A] = A
- Aliases are created by assignments without an explicit type:
class A: ... Alias = A
- The difference is that aliases are completely known statically and can be used in type context (annotations):
class A: ... class B: ... if random() > 0.5: Alias = A else: Alias = B # error: Cannot assign multiple types to name "Alias" without an explicit "Type[...]" annotation \ # error: Incompatible types in assignment (expression has type "Type[B]", variable has type "Type[A]") tp: Type[object] # tp is a type variable if random() > 0.5: tp = A else: tp = B # This is OK def fun1(x: Alias) -> None: ... # This is OK def fun2(x: tp) -> None: ... # error: Variable "__main__.tp" is not valid as a type
It’s unsafe to override a method with a more specific argument type, as it violates the Liskov substitution principle. For return types, it’s unsafe to override a method with a more general return type.
Other incompatible signature changes in method overrides, such as adding an extra required parameter, or removing an optional parameter, will also generate errors. The signature of a method in a subclass should accept all valid calls to the base class method. Mypy treats a subclass as a subtype of the base class. An instance of a subclass is valid everywhere where an instance of the base class is valid.
This example demonstrates both safe and unsafe overrides:
from typing import Sequence, List, Iterable class A: def test(self, t: Sequence[int]) -> Sequence[str]: ... class GeneralizedArgument(A): # A more general argument type is okay def test(self, t: Iterable[int]) -> Sequence[str]: # OK ... class NarrowerArgument(A): # A more specific argument type isn't accepted def test(self, t: List[int]) -> Sequence[str]: # Error ... class NarrowerReturn(A): # A more specific return type is fine def test(self, t: Sequence[int]) -> List[str]: # OK ... class GeneralizedReturn(A): # A more general return type is an error def test(self, t: Sequence[int]) -> Iterable[str]: # Error ...
You can use
# type: ignore[override] to silence the error. Add it
to the line that generates the error, if you decide that type safety is
class NarrowerArgument(A): def test(self, t: List[int]) -> Sequence[str]: # type: ignore[override] ...
Mypy may consider some code as unreachable, even if it might not be immediately obvious why. It’s important to note that mypy will not type check such code. Consider this example:
class Foo: bar: str = '' def bar() -> None: foo: Foo = Foo() return x: int = 'abc' # Unreachable -- no error
It’s easy to see that any statement after
return is unreachable,
and hence mypy will not complain about the mis-typed code below
it. For a more subtle example, consider this code:
class Foo: bar: str = '' def bar() -> None: foo: Foo = Foo() assert foo.bar is None x: int = 'abc' # Unreachable -- no error
Again, mypy will not report any errors. The type of
str, and mypy reasons that it can never be
None. Hence the
assert statement will always fail and the statement below will
never be executed. (Note that in Python,
None is not an empty
reference but an object of type
In this example mypy will go on to check the last line and report an error, since mypy thinks that the condition could be either True or False:
class Foo: bar: str = '' def bar() -> None: foo: Foo = Foo() if not foo.bar: return x: int = 'abc' # Reachable -- error
If you use the
--warn-unreachable flag, mypy will generate
an error about each unreachable code block.