Kinds of types

User-defined types

Each class is also a type. Any instance of a subclass is also compatible with all superclasses. All values are compatible with the object type (and also the Any type).

class A:
    def f(self) -> int:        # Type of self inferred (A)
        return 2

class B(A):
    def f(self) -> int:
         return 3
    def g(self) -> int:
        return 4

a = B() # type: A  # OK (explicit type for a; override type inference)
print(a.f())       # 3
a.g()              # Type check error: A has no method g

The Any type

A value with the Any type is dynamically typed. Mypy doesn’t know anything about the possible runtime types of such value. Any operations are permitted on the value, and the operations are checked at runtime, similar to normal Python code without type annotations.

Any is compatible with every other type, and vice versa. No implicit type check is inserted when assigning a value of type Any to a variable with a more precise type:

a = None  # type: Any
s = ''    # type: str
a = 2     # OK
s = a     # OK

Declared (and inferred) types are erased at runtime. They are basically treated as comments, and thus the above code does not generate a runtime error, even though s gets an int value when the program is run. Note that the declared type of s is actually str!

If you do not define a function return value or argument types, these default to Any:

def show_heading(s) -> None:
    print('=== ' + s + ' ===')  # No static type checking, as s has type Any

show_heading(1)  # OK (runtime error only; mypy won't generate an error)

You should give a statically typed function an explicit None return type even if it doesn’t return a value, as this lets mypy catch additional type errors:

def wait(t: float):  # Implicit Any return value
    print('Waiting...')
    time.sleep(t)

if wait(2) > 1:   # Mypy doesn't catch this error!
    ...

If we had used an explicit None return type, mypy would have caught the error:

def wait(t: float) -> None:
    print('Waiting...')
    time.sleep(t)

if wait(2) > 1:   # Error: can't compare None and int
    ...

The Any type is discussed in more detail in section Dynamically typed code.

Note

A function without any types in the signature is dynamically typed. The body of a dynamically typed function is not checked statically, and local variables have implicit Any types. This makes it easier to migrate legacy Python code to mypy, as mypy won’t complain about dynamically typed functions.

Tuple types

The type Tuple[T1, ..., Tn] represents a tuple with the item types T1, ..., Tn:

def f(t: Tuple[int, str]) -> None:
    t = 1, 'foo'    # OK
    t = 'foo', 1    # Type check error

A tuple type of this kind has exactly a specific number of items (2 in the above example). Tuples can also be used as immutable, varying-length sequences. You can use the type Tuple[T, ...] (with a literal ... – it’s part of the syntax) for this purpose. Example:

def print_squared(t: Tuple[int, ...]) -> None:
    for n in t:
        print(n, n ** 2)

print_squared(())           # OK
print_squared((1, 3, 5))    # OK
print_squared([1, 2])       # Error: only a tuple is valid

Note

Usually it’s a better idea to use Sequence[T] instead of Tuple[T, ...], as Sequence is also compatible with lists and other non-tuple sequences.

Note

Tuple[...] is not valid as a base class outside stub files. This is a limitation of the typing module. One way to work around this is to use a named tuple as a base class (see section Named tuples).

Callable types (and lambdas)

You can pass around function objects and bound methods in statically typed code. The type of a function that accepts arguments A1, ..., An and returns Rt is Callable[[A1, ..., An], Rt]. Example:

from typing import Callable

def twice(i: int, next: Callable[[int], int]) -> int:
    return next(next(i))

def add(i: int) -> int:
    return i + 1

print(twice(3, add))   # 5

You can only have positional arguments, and only ones without default values, in callable types. These cover the vast majority of uses of callable types, but sometimes this isn’t quite enough. Mypy recognizes a special form Callable[..., T] (with a literal ...) which can be used in less typical cases. It is compatible with arbitrary callable objects that return a type compatible with T, independent of the number, types or kinds of arguments. Mypy lets you call such callable values with arbitrary arguments, without any checking – in this respect they are treated similar to a (*args: Any, **kwargs: Any) function signature. Example:

from typing import Callable

 def arbitrary_call(f: Callable[..., int]) -> int:
     return f('x') + f(y=2)  # OK

 arbitrary_call(ord)   # No static error, but fails at runtime
 arbitrary_call(open)  # Error: does not return an int
 arbitrary_call(1)     # Error: 'int' is not callable

Lambdas are also supported. The lambda argument and return value types cannot be given explicitly; they are always inferred based on context using bidirectional type inference:

l = map(lambda x: x + 1, [1, 2, 3])   # Infer x as int and l as List[int]

If you want to give the argument or return value types explicitly, use an ordinary, perhaps nested function definition.

Extended Callable types

As an experimental mypy extension, you can specify Callable types that support keyword arguments, optional arguments, and more. Where you specify the arguments of a Callable, you can choose to supply just the type of a nameless positional argument, or an “argument specifier” representing a more complicated form of argument. This allows one to more closely emulate the full range of possibilities given by the def statement in Python.

As an example, here’s a complicated function definition and the corresponding Callable:

from typing import Callable
from mypy_extensions import (Arg, DefaultArg, NamedArg,
                             DefaultNamedArg, VarArg, KwArg)

def func(__a: int,  # This convention is for nameless arguments
         b: int,
         c: int = 0,
         *args: int,
         d: int,
         e: int = 0,
         **kwargs: int) -> int:
    ...

F = Callable[[int,  # Or Arg(int)
              Arg(int, 'b'),
              DefaultArg(int, 'c'),
              VarArg(int),
              NamedArg(int, 'd'),
              DefaultNamedArg(int, 'e'),
              KwArg(int)],
             int]

f: F = func

Argument specifiers are special function calls that can specify the following aspects of an argument:

  • its type (the only thing that the basic format supports)
  • its name (if it has one)
  • whether it may be omitted
  • whether it may or must be passed using a keyword
  • whether it is a *args argument (representing the remaining positional arguments)
  • whether it is a **kwargs argument (representing the remaining keyword arguments)

The following functions are available in mypy_extensions for this purpose:

def Arg(type=Any, name=None):
    # A normal, mandatory, positional argument.
    # If the name is specified it may be passed as a keyword.

def DefaultArg(type=Any, name=None):
    # An optional positional argument (i.e. with a default value).
    # If the name is specified it may be passed as a keyword.

def NamedArg(type=Any, name=None):
    # A mandatory keyword-only argument.

def DefaultNamedArg(type=Any, name=None):
    # An optional keyword-only argument (i.e. with a default value).

def VarArg(type=Any):
    # A *args-style variadic positional argument.
    # A single VarArg() specifier represents all remaining
    # positional arguments.

def KwArg(type=Any):
    # A **kwargs-style variadic keyword argument.
    # A single KwArg() specifier represents all remaining
    # keyword arguments.

In all cases, the type argument defaults to Any, and if the name argument is omitted the argument has no name (the name is required for NamedArg and DefaultNamedArg). A basic Callable such as

MyFunc = Callable[[int, str, int], float]

is equivalent to the following:

MyFunc = Callable[[Arg(int), Arg(str), Arg(int)], float]

A Callable with unspecified argument types, such as

MyOtherFunc = Callable[..., int]

is (roughly) equivalent to

MyOtherFunc = Callable[[VarArg(), KwArg()], int]

Note

This feature is experimental. Details of the implementation may change and there may be unknown limitations. IMPORTANT: Each of the functions above currently just returns its type argument, so the information contained in the argument specifiers is not available at runtime. This limitation is necessary for backwards compatibility with the existing typing.py module as present in the Python 3.5+ standard library and distributed via PyPI.

Union types

Python functions often accept values of two or more different types. You can use overloading to model this in statically typed code, but union types can make code like this easier to write.

Use the Union[T1, ..., Tn] type constructor to construct a union type. For example, the type Union[int, str] is compatible with both integers and strings. You can use an isinstance() check to narrow down the type to a specific type:

from typing import Union

def f(x: Union[int, str]) -> None:
    x + 1     # Error: str + int is not valid
    if isinstance(x, int):
        # Here type of x is int.
        x + 1      # OK
    else:
        # Here type of x is str.
        x + 'a'    # OK

f(1)    # OK
f('x')  # OK
f(1.1)  # Error

The type of None and optional types

Mypy treats the type of None as special. None is a valid value for every type, which resembles null in Java. Unlike Java, mypy doesn’t treat primitives types specially: None is also valid for primitive types such as int and float.

Note

See Experimental strict optional type and None checking for an experimental mode which allows mypy to check None values precisely.

When initializing a variable as None, None is usually an empty place-holder value, and the actual value has a different type. This is why you need to annotate an attribute in a case like this:

class A:
    def __init__(self) -> None:
        self.count = None  # type: int

Mypy will complain if you omit the type annotation, as it wouldn’t be able to infer a non-trivial type for the count attribute otherwise.

Mypy generally uses the first assignment to a variable to infer the type of the variable. However, if you assign both a None value and a non-None value in the same scope, mypy can often do the right thing:

def f(i: int) -> None:
    n = None  # Inferred type int because of the assignment below
    if i > 0:
         n = i
    ...

Often it’s useful to know whether a variable can be None. For example, this function accepts a None argument, but it’s not obvious from its signature:

def greeting(name: str) -> str:
    if name:
        return 'Hello, {}'.format(name)
    else:
        return 'Hello, stranger'

print(greeting('Python'))  # Okay!
print(greeting(None))      # Also okay!

Mypy lets you use Optional[t] to document that None is a valid argument type:

from typing import Optional

def greeting(name: Optional[str]) -> str:
    if name:
        return 'Hello, {}'.format(name)
    else:
        return 'Hello, stranger'

Mypy treats this as semantically equivalent to the previous example, since None is implicitly valid for any type, but it’s much more useful for a programmer who is reading the code. You can equivalently use Union[str, None], but Optional is shorter and more idiomatic.

Note

None is also used as the return type for functions that don’t return a value, i.e. that implicitly return None. Mypy doesn’t use NoneType for this, since it would look awkward, even though that is the real name of the type of None (try type(None) in the interactive interpreter to see for yourself).

Experimental strict optional type and None checking

Currently, None is a valid value for each type, similar to null or NULL in many languages. However, you can use the experimental --strict-optional command line option to tell mypy that types should not include None by default. The Optional type modifier is then used to define a type variant that includes None, such as Optional[int]:

from typing import Optional

def f() -> Optional[int]:
    return None  # OK

def g() -> int:
    ...
    return None  # Error: None not compatible with int

Also, most operations will not be allowed on unguarded None or Optional values:

def f(x: Optional[int]) -> int:
    return x + 1  # Error: Cannot add None and int

Instead, an explicit None check is required. Mypy has powerful type inference that lets you use regular Python idioms to guard against None values. For example, mypy recognizes is None checks:

def f(x: Optional[int]) -> int:
    if x is None:
        return 0
    else:
        # The inferred type of x is just int here.
        return x + 1

Mypy will infer the type of x to be int in the else block due to the check against None in the if condition.

Note

--strict-optional is experimental and still has known issues.

The NoReturn type

Mypy provides support for functions that never return. For example, a function that unconditionally raises an exception:

from mypy_extensions import NoReturn

def stop() -> NoReturn:
    raise Exception('no way')

Mypy will ensure that functions annotated as returning NoReturn truly never return, either implicitly or explicitly. Mypy will also recognize that the code after calls to such functions is unreachable and will behave accordingly:

def f(x: int) -> int:
    if x == 0:
        return x
    stop()
    return 'whatever works'  # No error in an unreachable block

Install mypy_extensions using pip to use NoReturn in your code. Python 3 command line:

python3 -m pip install --upgrade mypy-extensions

This works for Python 2:

pip install --upgrade mypy-extensions

Class name forward references

Python does not allow references to a class object before the class is defined. Thus this code does not work as expected:

def f(x: A) -> None:  # Error: Name A not defined
    ....

class A:
    ...

In cases like these you can enter the type as a string literal — this is a forward reference:

def f(x: 'A') -> None:  # OK
    ...

class A:
    ...

Of course, instead of using a string literal type, you could move the function definition after the class definition. This is not always desirable or even possible, though.

Any type can be entered as a string literal, and you can combine string-literal types with non-string-literal types freely:

def f(a: List['A']) -> None: ...  # OK
def g(n: 'int') -> None: ...      # OK, though not useful

class A: pass

String literal types are never needed in # type: comments.

String literal types must be defined (or imported) later in the same module. They cannot be used to leave cross-module references unresolved. (For dealing with import cycles, see Import cycles.)

Type aliases

In certain situations, type names may end up being long and painful to type:

def f() -> Union[List[Dict[Tuple[int, str], Set[int]]], Tuple[str, List[str]]]:
    ...

When cases like this arise, you can define a type alias by simply assigning the type to a variable:

AliasType = Union[List[Dict[Tuple[int, str], Set[int]]], Tuple[str, List[str]]]

# Now we can use AliasType in place of the full name:

def f() -> AliasType:
    ...

Type aliases can be generic, in this case they could be used in two variants: Subscripted aliases are equivalent to original types with substituted type variables, number of type arguments must match the number of free type variables in generic type alias. Unsubscripted aliases are treated as original types with free variables replaced with Any. Examples (following PEP 484):

from typing import TypeVar, Iterable, Tuple, Union, Callable
S = TypeVar('S')
TInt = Tuple[int, S]
UInt = Union[S, int]
CBack = Callable[..., S]

def response(query: str) -> UInt[str]:  # Same as Union[str, int]
    ...
def activate(cb: CBack[S]) -> S:        # Same as Callable[..., S]
    ...
table_entry: TInt  # Same as Tuple[int, Any]

T = TypeVar('T', int, float, complex)
Vec = Iterable[Tuple[T, T]]

def inproduct(v: Vec[T]) -> T:
    return sum(x*y for x, y in v)

def dilate(v: Vec[T], scale: T) -> Vec[T]:
    return ((x * scale, y * scale) for x, y in v)

v1: Vec[int] = []      # Same as Iterable[Tuple[int, int]]
v2: Vec = []           # Same as Iterable[Tuple[Any, Any]]
v3: Vec[int, int] = [] # Error: Invalid alias, too many type arguments!

Type aliases can be imported from modules like any names. Aliases can target another aliases (although building complex chains of aliases is not recommended, this impedes code readability, thus defeating the purpose of using aliases). Following previous examples:

from typing import TypeVar, Generic, Optional
from first_example import AliasType
from second_example import Vec

def fun() -> AliasType:
    ...

T = TypeVar('T')
class NewVec(Generic[T], Vec[T]):
    ...
for i, j in NewVec[int]():
    ...

OIntVec = Optional[Vec[int]]

Note

A type alias does not create a new type. It’s just a shorthand notation for another type – it’s equivalent to the target type. For generic type aliases this means that variance of type variables used for alias definition does not apply to aliases. A parameterized generic alias is treated simply as an original type with the corresponding type variables substituted.

NewTypes

(Freely after PEP 484.)

There are also situations where a programmer might want to avoid logical errors by creating simple classes. For example:

class UserId(int):
    pass

get_by_user_id(user_id: UserId):
    ...

However, this approach introduces some runtime overhead. To avoid this, the typing module provides a helper function NewType that creates simple unique types with almost zero runtime overhead. Mypy will treat the statement Derived = NewType('Derived', Base) as being roughly equivalent to the following definition:

class Derived(Base):
    def __init__(self, _x: Base) -> None:
        ...

However, at runtime, NewType('Derived', Base) will return a dummy function that simply returns its argument:

def Derived(_x):
    return _x

Mypy will require explicit casts from int where UserId is expected, while implicitly casting from UserId where int is expected. Examples:

from typing import NewType

UserId = NewType('UserId', int)

def name_by_id(user_id: UserId) -> str:
    ...

UserId('user')          # Fails type check

name_by_id(42)          # Fails type check
name_by_id(UserId(42))  # OK

num = UserId(5) + 1     # type: int

NewType accepts exactly two arguments. The first argument must be a string literal containing the name of the new type and must equal the name of the variable to which the new type is assigned. The second argument must be a properly subclassable class, i.e., not a type construct like Union, etc.

The function returned by NewType accepts only one argument; this is equivalent to supporting only one constructor accepting an instance of the base class (see above). Example:

from typing import NewType

class PacketId:
    def __init__(self, major: int, minor: int) -> None:
        self._major = major
        self._minor = minor

TcpPacketId = NewType('TcpPacketId', PacketId)

packet = PacketId(100, 100)
tcp_packet = TcpPacketId(packet)  # OK

tcp_packet = TcpPacketId(127, 0)  # Fails in type checker and at runtime

Both isinstance and issubclass, as well as subclassing will fail for NewType('Derived', Base) since function objects don’t support these operations.

Note

Note that unlike type aliases, NewType will create an entirely new and unique type when used. The intended purpose of NewType is to help you detect cases where you accidentally mixed together the old base type and the new derived type.

For example, the following will successfully typecheck when using type aliases:

UserId = int

def name_by_id(user_id: UserId) -> str:
    ...

name_by_id(3)  # ints and UserId are synonymous

But a similar example using NewType will not typecheck:

from typing import NewType

UserId = NewType('UserId', int)

def name_by_id(user_id: UserId) -> str:
    ...

name_by_id(3)  # int is not the same as UserId

Named tuples

Mypy recognizes named tuples and can type check code that defines or uses them. In this example, we can detect code trying to access a missing attribute:

Point = namedtuple('Point', ['x', 'y'])
p = Point(x=1, y=2)
print(p.z)  # Error: Point has no attribute 'z'

If you use namedtuple to define your named tuple, all the items are assumed to have Any types. That is, mypy doesn’t know anything about item types. You can use typing.NamedTuple to also define item types:

from typing import NamedTuple

Point = NamedTuple('Point', [('x', int),
                             ('y', int)])
p = Point(x=1, y='x')  # Argument has incompatible type "str"; expected "int"

Python 3.6 will have an alternative, class-based syntax for named tuples with types. Mypy supports it already:

from typing import NamedTuple

class Point(NamedTuple):
    x: int
    y: int

p = Point(x=1, y='x')  # Argument has incompatible type "str"; expected "int"

The type of class objects

(Freely after PEP 484.)

Sometimes you want to talk about class objects that inherit from a given class. This can be spelled as Type[C] where C is a class. In other words, when C is the name of a class, using C to annotate an argument declares that the argument is an instance of C (or of a subclass of C), but using Type[C] as an argument annotation declares that the argument is a class object deriving from C (or C itself).

For example, assume the following classes:

class User:
    # Defines fields like name, email

class BasicUser(User):
    def upgrade(self):
        """Upgrade to Pro"""

class ProUser(User):
    def pay(self):
        """Pay bill"""

Note that ProUser doesn’t inherit from BasicUser.

Here’s a function that creates an instance of one of these classes if you pass it the right class object:

def new_user(user_class):
    user = user_class()
    # (Here we could write the user object to a database)
    return user

How would we annotate this function? Without Type[] the best we could do would be:

def new_user(user_class: type) -> User:
    # Same  implementation as before

This seems reasonable, except that in the following example, mypy doesn’t see that the buyer variable has type ProUser:

buyer = new_user(ProUser)
buyer.pay()  # Rejected, not a method on User

However, using Type[] and a type variable with an upper bound (see Type variables with upper bounds) we can do better:

U = TypeVar('U', bound=User)

def new_user(user_class: Type[U]) -> U:
    # Same  implementation as before

Now mypy will infer the correct type of the result when we call new_user() with a specific subclass of User:

beginner = new_user(BasicUser)  # Inferred type is BasicUser
beginner.upgrade()  # OK

Note

The value corresponding to Type[C] must be an actual class object that’s a subtype of C. Its constructor must be compatible with the constructor of C. If C is a type variable, its upper bound must be a class object.

For more details about Type[] see PEP 484.

Text and AnyStr

Sometimes you may want to write a function which will accept only unicode strings. This can be challenging to do in a codebase intended to run in both Python 2 and Python 3 since str means something different in both versions and unicode is not a keyword in Python 3.

To help solve this issue, use typing.Text which is aliased to unicode in Python 2 and to str in Python 3. This allows you to indicate that a function should accept only unicode strings in a cross-compatible way:

from typing import Text

def unicode_only(s: Text) -> Text:
    return s + u'\u2713'

In other cases, you may want to write a function that will work with any kind of string but will not let you mix two different string types. To do so use typing.AnyStr:

from typing import AnyStr

def concat(x: AnyStr, y: AnyStr) -> AnyStr:
    return x + y

concat('a', 'b')     # Okay
concat(b'a', b'b')   # Okay
concat('a', b'b')    # Error: cannot mix bytes and unicode

For more details, see Type variables with value restriction.

Note

How bytes, str, and unicode are handled between Python 2 and Python 3 may change in future versions of mypy.

Generators

A basic generator that only yields values can be annotated as having a return type of either Iterator[YieldType] or Iterable[YieldType]. For example:

def squares(n: int) -> Iterator[int]:
    for i in range(n):
        yield i * i

If you want your generator to accept values via the send method or return a value, you should use the Generator[YieldType, SendType, ReturnType] generic type instead. For example:

def echo_round() -> Generator[int, float, str]:
    sent = yield 0
    while sent >= 0:
        sent = yield round(sent)
    return 'Done'

Note that unlike many other generics in the typing module, the SendType of Generator behaves contravariantly, not covariantly or invariantly.

If you do not plan on receiving or returning values, then set the SendType or ReturnType to None, as appropriate. For example, we could have annotated the first example as the following:

def squares(n: int) -> Generator[int, None, None]:
    for i in range(n):
        yield i * i

Typing async/await

Mypy supports the ability to type coroutines that use the async/await syntax introduced in Python 3.5. For more information regarding coroutines and this new syntax, see PEP 492.

Functions defined using async def are typed just like normal functions. The return type annotation should be the same as the type of the value you expect to get back when await-ing the coroutine.

import asyncio

async def format_string(tag: str, count: int) -> str:
    return 'T-minus {} ({})'.format(count, tag)

async def countdown_1(tag: str, count: int) -> str:
    while count > 0:
        my_str = await format_string(tag, count)  # has type 'str'
        print(my_str)
        await asyncio.sleep(0.1)
        count -= 1
    return "Blastoff!"

loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
loop.run_until_complete(countdown_1("Millennium Falcon", 5))
loop.close()

The result of calling an async def function without awaiting will be a value of type Awaitable[T]:

my_coroutine = countdown_1("Millennium Falcon", 5)
reveal_type(my_coroutine)  # has type 'Awaitable[str]'

Note

reveal_type() displays the inferred static type of an expression.

If you want to use coroutines in older versions of Python that do not support the async def syntax, you can instead use the @asyncio.coroutine decorator to convert a generator into a coroutine.

Note that we set the YieldType of the generator to be Any in the following example. This is because the exact yield type is an implementation detail of the coroutine runner (e.g. the asyncio event loop) and your coroutine shouldn’t have to know or care about what precisely that type is.

from typing import Any, Generator
import asyncio

@asyncio.coroutine
def countdown_2(tag: str, count: int) -> Generator[Any, None, str]:
    while count > 0:
        print('T-minus {} ({})'.format(count, tag))
        yield from asyncio.sleep(0.1)
        count -= 1
   return "Blastoff!"

loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
loop.run_until_complete(countdown_2("USS Enterprise", 5))
loop.close()

As before, the result of calling a generator decorated with @asyncio.coroutine will be a value of type Awaitable[T].

Note

At runtime, you are allowed to add the @asyncio.coroutine decorator to both functions and generators. This is useful when you want to mark a work-in-progress function as a coroutine, but have not yet added yield or yield from statements:

import asyncio

@asyncio.coroutine
def serialize(obj: object) -> str:
    # todo: add yield/yield from to turn this into a generator
    return "placeholder"

However, mypy currently does not support converting functions into coroutines. Support for this feature will be added in a future version, but for now, you can manually force the function to be a generator by doing something like this:

from typing import Generator
import asyncio

@asyncio.coroutine
def serialize(obj: object) -> Generator[None, None, str]:
    # todo: add yield/yield from to turn this into a generator
    if False:
        yield
    return "placeholder"

You may also choose to create a subclass of Awaitable instead:

from typing import Any, Awaitable, Generator
import asyncio

class MyAwaitable(Awaitable[str]):
    def __init__(self, tag: str, count: int) -> None:
        self.tag = tag
        self.count = count

    def __await__(self) -> Generator[Any, None, str]:
        for i in range(n, 0, -1):
            print('T-minus {} ({})'.format(i, tag))
            yield from asyncio.sleep(0.1)
        return "Blastoff!"

def countdown_3(tag: str, count: int) -> Awaitable[str]:
    return MyAwaitable(tag, count)

loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
loop.run_until_complete(countdown_3("Heart of Gold", 5))
loop.close()

To create an iterable coroutine, subclass AsyncIterator:

from typing import Optional, AsyncIterator
import asyncio

class arange(AsyncIterator[int]):
    def __init__(self, start: int, stop: int, step: int) -> None:
        self.start = start
        self.stop = stop
        self.step = step
        self.count = start - step

    def __aiter__(self) -> AsyncIterator[int]:
        return self

    async def __anext__(self) -> int:
        self.count += self.step
        if self.count == self.stop:
            raise StopAsyncIteration
        else:
            return self.count

async def countdown_4(tag: str, n: int) -> str:
    async for i in arange(n, 0, -1):
        print('T-minus {} ({})'.format(i, tag))
        await asyncio.sleep(0.1)
    return "Blastoff!"

loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
loop.run_until_complete(countdown_4("Serenity", 5))
loop.close()

For a more concrete example, the mypy repo has a toy webcrawler that demonstrates how to work with coroutines. One version uses async/await and one uses yield from.

TypedDict

Note

TypedDict is an officially supported feature, but it is still experimental.

Python programs often use dictionaries with string keys to represent objects. Here is a typical example:

movie = {'name': 'Blade Runner', 'year': 1982}

Only a fixed set of string keys is expected ('name' and 'year' above), and each key has an independent value type (str for 'name' and int for 'year' above). We’ve previously seen the Dict[K, V] type, which lets you declare uniform dictionary types, where every value has the same type, and arbitrary keys are supported. This is clearly not a good fit for movie above. Instead, you can use a TypedDict to give a precise type for objects like movie, where the type of each dictionary value depends on the key:

from mypy_extensions import TypedDict

Movie = TypedDict('Movie', {'name': str, 'year': int})

movie = {'name': 'Blade Runner', 'year': 1982}  # type: Movie

Movie is a TypedDict type with two items: 'name' (with type str) and 'year' (with type int). Note that we used an explicit type annotation for the movie variable. This type annotation is important – without it, mypy will try to infer a regular, uniform Dict type for movie, which is not what we want here.

Note

If you pass a TypedDict object as an argument to a function, no type annotation is usually necessary since mypy can infer the desired type based on the declared argument type. Also, if an assignment target has been previously defined, and it has a TypedDict type, mypy will treat the assigned value as a TypedDict, not Dict.

Now mypy will recognize these as valid:

name = movie['name']  # Okay; type of name is str
year = movie['year']  # Okay; type of year is int

Mypy will detect an invalid key as an error:

director = movie['director']  # Error: 'director' is not a valid key

Mypy will also reject a runtime-computed expression as a key, as it can’t verify that it’s a valid key. You can only use string literals as TypedDict keys.

The TypedDict type object can also act as a constructor. It returns a normal dict object at runtime – a TypedDict does not define a new runtime type:

toy_story = Movie(name='Toy Story', year=1995)

This is equivalent to just constructing a dictionary directly using { ... } or dict(key=value, ...). The constructor form is sometimes convenient, since it can be used without a type annotation, and it also makes the type of the object explicit.

Like all types, TypedDicts can be used as components to build arbitrarily complex types. For example, you can define nested TypedDicts and containers with TypedDict items. Unlike most other types, mypy uses structural compatibility checking (or structural subtyping) with TypedDicts. A TypedDict object with extra items is compatible with a narrower TypedDict, assuming item types are compatible (totality also affects subtyping, as discussed below).

Note

You need to install mypy_extensions using pip to use TypedDict:

python3 -m pip install --upgrade mypy-extensions

Or, if you are using Python 2:

pip install --upgrade mypy-extensions

Totality

By default mypy ensures that a TypedDict object has all the specified keys. This will be flagged as an error:

# Error: 'year' missing
toy_story = {'name': 'Toy Story'}  # type: Movie

Sometimes you want to allow keys to be left out when creating a TypedDict object. You can provide the total=False argument to TypedDict(...) to achieve this:

GuiOptions = TypedDict(
    'GuiOptions', {'language': str, 'color': str}, total=False)
options = {}  # type: GuiOptions  # Okay
options['language'] = 'en'

You may need to use get() to access items of a partial (non-total) TypedDict, since indexing using [] could fail at runtime. However, mypy still lets use [] with a partial TypedDict – you just need to be careful with it, as it could result in a KeyError. Requiring get() everywhere would be too cumbersome. (Note that you are free to use get() with total TypedDicts as well.)

Keys that aren’t required are shown with a ? in error messages:

# Revealed type is 'TypedDict('GuiOptions', {'language'?: builtins.str,
#                                            'color'?: builtins.str})'
reveal_type(options)

Totality also affects structural compatibility. You can’t use a partial TypedDict when a total one is expected. Also, a total typed dict is not valid when a partial one is expected.

Class-based syntax

Python 3.6 supports an alternative, class-based syntax to define a TypedDict. This means that your code must be checked as if it were Python 3.6 (using the --python-version flag on the command line, for example). Simply running mypy on Python 3.6 is insufficient.

from mypy_extensions import TypedDict

class Movie(TypedDict):
    name: str
    year: int

The above definition is equivalent to the original Movie definition. It doesn’t actually define a real class. This syntax also supports a form of inheritance – subclasses can define additional items. However, this is primarily a notational shortcut. Since mypy uses structural compatibility with TypedDicts, inheritance is not required for compatibility. Here is an example of inheritance:

class Movie(TypedDict):
    name: str
    year: int

class BookBasedMovie(Movie):
    based_on: str

Now BookBasedMovie has keys name, year and based_on.

Mixing required and non-required items

In addition to allowing reuse across TypedDict types, inheritance also allows you to mix required and non-required (using total=False) items in a single TypedDict. Example:

class MovieBase(TypedDict):
    name: str
    year: int

class Movie(MovieBase, total=False):
    based_on: str

Now Movie has required keys name and year, while based_on can be left out when constructing an object. A TypedDict with a mix of required and non-required keys, such as Movie above, will only be compatible with another TypedDict if all required keys in the other TypedDict are required keys in the first TypedDict, and all non-required keys of the other TypedDict are also non-required keys in the first TypedDict.