Sometimes the types in a function depend on each other in ways that
can’t be captured with a
Union. For example, the
 bracket indexing) method can take an integer and return a
single item, or take a
slice and return a
Sequence of items.
You might be tempted to annotate it like so:
from typing import Sequence, TypeVar, Union T = TypeVar('T') class MyList(Sequence[T]): def __getitem__(self, index: Union[int, slice]) -> Union[T, Sequence[T]]: if isinstance(index, int): ... # Return a T here elif isinstance(index, slice): ... # Return a sequence of Ts here else: raise TypeError(...)
But this is too loose, as it implies that when you pass in an
you might sometimes get out a single item and sometimes a sequence.
The return type depends on the parameter type in a way that can’t be
expressed using a type variable. Instead, we can use overloading
to give the same function multiple type annotations (signatures) and
accurately describe the function’s behavior.
from typing import overload, Sequence, TypeVar, Union T = TypeVar('T') class MyList(Sequence[T]): # The @overload definitions are just for the type checker, # and overwritten by the real implementation below. @overload def __getitem__(self, index: int) -> T: pass # Don't put code here # All overloads and the implementation must be adjacent # in the source file, and overload order may matter: # when two overloads may overlap, the more specific one # should come first. @overload def __getitem__(self, index: slice) -> Sequence[T]: pass # Don't put code here # The implementation goes last, without @overload. # It may or may not have type hints; if it does, # these are checked against the overload definitions # as well as against the implementation body. def __getitem__(self, index): # This is exactly the same as before. if isinstance(index, int): ... # Return a T here elif isinstance(index, slice): ... # Return a sequence of Ts here else: raise TypeError(...)
Overloaded function variants are still ordinary Python functions and
they still define a single runtime object. There is no automatic
dispatch happening, and you must manually handle the different types
in the implementation (usually with
isinstance() checks, as
shown in the example).
The overload variants must be adjacent in the code. This makes code clearer, as you don’t have to hunt for overload variants across the file.
Overloads in stub files are exactly the same, except there is no implementation.
As generic type variables are erased at runtime when constructing
instances of generic types, an overloaded function cannot have
variants that only differ in a generic type argument,
If you just need to constrain a type variable to certain types or subtypes, you can use a value restriction.